Offshore oil, gas and energy research

About COOGER

The Centre for Offshore Oil, Gas and Energy Research (COOGER) is located at the Bedford Institute of Oceanography (BIO) in Dartmouth, Nova Scotia. While most of COOGER’s work is done at BIO, the team also travels to other parts of Canada and the United States to work with research partners and to take part in workshops, conferences and research studies.

Formed in 2002, COOGER is made up of a diverse group with expertise in the fate and behaviour of petroleum spills in aquatic environments. Under the Government of Canada’s Oceans Protection Plan and the World Class Tanker Safety System program, COOGER is addressing concerns about potential risks by providing science-based information and advice on how petroleum spills behave under a range of environmental and oceanographic conditions, and how effective certain methods are for treating spills. Through its research, COOGER provides assistance in improving Canada’s spill response measures.

Under these programs, COOGER’s main areas of research are:

Activities, experiments and analyses that contribute to these largescale projects include:

  • Detailed hydrocarbon chemistry and microbiology laboratory analyses, wave and flume tank experiments, and field programs.
  • In-situ monitoring and tracking of petroleum to model its dispersion in water.
  • Studying the weathering of products to understand their persistence and breakdown in the environment.
  • Studying interactions between microbes and petroleum in response to spills.

COOGER is involved in many collaborative research projects with government departments, post-secondary institutions, the private sector and international organizations.

Research and publications

Peer reviewed journal articles

Peer reviewed journal articles

2019

  • Johannessen, S., Greer, C., Hannah, C., King, T., Lee, K., Pawlowicz, R., and Wright, C. Fate of diluted bitumen spilled in the coastal waters of British Columbia, Canada. Marine Pollution Bulletin.
  • King, T., Toole, P., Robinson, B., Ryan, S. Lee, K., Boufadel, M., Li, H. and Clyburne, J. Influence of climatic parameters on changes in density and viscosity of diluted bitumen after a spill. Journal of Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 5(3):373-382. Open Access
  • Trembaly, J., Fortin, N., Elias, M., Wasserscheid, J., King, T., Lee, K., and Greer, C. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic responses of natural oil degrading bacteria in the presence of dispersants. Environmental Microbiology. 21(7): 2307-2319.
  • Schreiber, L., Fortin, N., Tremblay, J., Elias, M., Mason, J., Sanschagrin, S., Cobanli, S., King, T., Lee, K., and Greer, C. Evaluation of the natural attenuation potential of diluted bitumen by microbial communities in the Douglas Channel and Hecate Strait, British Columbia. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 85(10):1-19.
  • Ortmann, A.; Cobanli, S.; Wohlgeschaffen, G.; Thamer, P.; McIntyre, C.; Mason, J.; and King, T. Inorganic nutrients have a significant, but minimal, impact on a coastal microbial community’s response to fresh diluted bitumen. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 139: 381-389.

2018

2017

  • Niu, H., Li, S., Li, P., King, T., and Lee, K. Stochastic modeling of the fate and behaviour of an oil spill in the Salish Sea. International Journal of Offshore and Polar Engineering. 27(4):337-345.
  • King, T., Fangda, C., Robinson, B., Boufadel, M., Lee, K., and Clyburne, JAC. Oil spill decision matrix in response to surface spills of various bitumen blends. Royal Society of Chemistry Environmental Science: Processes and Impacts. 19(1):928 938. Open Access
  • Zhao, L., Boufadel, M., Katz, J., Haspel, G., Lee, K., King, T., and Robinson, B. A new mechanism of sediment attachment to oil in turbulent flows: projectile particles. Environmental Science and Technology. 51(19), 11020-11028.
  • Yergeau, E., Michel, C., Tremblay, J., Niemi, A., King, T., Wyglinski, J., Lee, K., and Greer, C. Metagenomic survery of the taxonomic and functional microbial communities of seawater and sea ice from the Canadian Arctic. Nature Scientific Report. 7:42242, DOI:10.1038/srep42242. Open Access
  • Zhao, L., Boufadel, M., King, T., Robinson, B., Gao, F, Socolofsky, S., and Lee, K. Droplet and bubble formation of combined oil and gas releases in subsea blowouts. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 120(1-2):203 216.
  • Pan, Z., Personna, Y., Boufadel, M., King, T., Mason, J., Axe, L., and Geng, X. Biodegradation of dispersed weathered Endicott oil in Prince William Sound water. Journal of Environmental Engineering. 143(9):1943-7870.
  • Gao, F. Zhao, L., Boufadel, M., King, T. Robinson, B., Conmy, R., and Miller, R. Hydrodynamics of oil jets without and with dispersant: Experimental and numerical characterization. Applied Ocean Research. 68:77-90.
  • O’Laughlin, C., Law, B., Zions, V., King, T., Robinson, B., and Wu, Y. Settling of dilbit-derived oil-mineral aggregates (OMAs) & transport parameters for oil spill modelling. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 124:292-302.
  • Tremblay, J., Yergeau, E., Fortin, N., Cobanli, S., Elias, M., King, T., Lee, K., and Greer, C. Chemical dispersant enhance the activity of oil- and gas condensate degrading marine bacteria. International Society for Microbial Ecology. 1-16.
  • Zhao, L., Boufadel, M., King, T., Robinson, B., Gao, F., Socolofsky, S., and Lee, K. Droplet and bubble formation of combined oil and gas releases in subsea blowouts. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 120(1-2):203 216.
  • Zhao, L., Gao, F., Boufadel, M., King, T., Robinson, B., Conmy, R., and Lee, K. Oil jet with dispersant: macro-scale hydrodynamics and tip streaming. American Institute of Chemical Engineers Journal. 63(11):5222-5235.

2016

  • Personna, Y.R., King, T., Boufadel, M.C., Zhang, S., and Axe, L. Dual effects of a dispersant and nutrient supplementation on weathered Endicott oil biodegradation in seawater. Environmental Science. 3(4):739 751.
  • Zhao, L., Shaffer, F., Robinson, R., King, T., D’Ambrose, C., Pan, Z., Gao, F., Miller, R., Conmy, R., and Boufadel, M. Underwater oil jet: Hydrodynamics and droplet size distribution. Chemical Engineering Journal. 299:292-303.
  • Zhao, L., Boufadel, M., Lee, K., King, T., Loney, N., and Geng, X. Evolution of bubble size distribution from gas blowout in shallow water. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans. 121:1-27.
  • Li, P., Weng, L., Niu, H., Robinson, B., King, T., Conmy, R., Lee, K., and Liu, L. Reynolds number scaling to predict droplet size distribution in dispersed and undispersed subsurface oil releases. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 113(1-2):332-342.
  • Garneau, M., Michel, C., Meisterhans, G., Fortin, N., King, T., Greer, C., and Lee, K. Hydrocarbon biodegradation by Arctic sea ice and sub-ice microbial communities during microcosm experiments, Northwest Passage (Nunavut, Canada). FEMS Microbiology. 92:1-17.
  • Pan, Z., Zhao, L., Boufadel, M., King, T., Robinson, B., Conmy, R., and Lee, K. Impact of mixing time and energy on the dispersion effectiveness and droplet size of oil. Chemosphere. 166:246-254.
  • Zhao, L., Boufadel, M., Lee, K., King, T., Robinson, B., and Fitzpatrick, F. A-DROP: A predictive model for the formation of oil particle aggregates. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 106(1-2):245-259.
  • Zhao, L., Boufadel, M., Lee, K., King, T., Loney, N., and Geng, X. Evolution of bubble side distribution from gas blowout in shallow water. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans. 121(3):1573-1599.
  • Geng, X., Boufadel, M., Ozgokmen, T. King, T., Lee, K,. Lu, Y., and Zhou, L. Oil droplets transport due to irregular waves: development of large scale coefficient. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 101(1-2):279 289.

2015

  • Zhao, L., Boufadel, M., Adams, E., Socolofsky, S. King, T., Lee, K., Nedwed, T. Simulation of scenarios of oil droplet formation from the Deepwater Horizon blowout. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 100, 304-319.
  • Jahan, N., Fawett, J., King, T., McPherson, A., Robertson, K., Werner–Zwanziger, U., and Clyburne, J.A.C. Bitumen on Water: Charred Hay as a PFD (Petroleum Floatation Device). Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 3, 1244–1259.
  • King, T.L., Robinson, B., McIntyre, C., Toole, P., Ryan, S., Saleh, F., Boufadel, M.C., and Lee, K. Fate of surface spills of Cold Lake blend diluted bitumen treated with dispersant and mineral fines in a wave tank. Environmental Engineering Science, 32, (3), 250–261.
  • Yeung, C.W., Lee, K., Cobanli, S., King, T., Bugden, J., Whyte, L., and Greer, C. Characterization of the microbial community structure and the physicochemical properties of produced water and seawater from the Hibernia oil production platform. Environmental Science Pollution Research International, 22, 17697–715. DOI 10.1007/s11356–015 4947–z.

2014

  • Personna, Y., King, T., Boufadel, M., Zhang, S. Kustka, A. Assessing weathered Endicott oil biodegradation in brackish water. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 86, 102 110.
  • King, T.L., Robinson, B., Boufadel, M., and Lee, K. Flume tank studies to elucidate the fate and behavior of diluted bitumen spilled at sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 83, (1), 32–37.
  • Conmy, R., Coble, P., Farr, J., Wood, M., Lee, K., Pegau, W.S., Walsh, I., Koch, C., Abercrombie, M., Miles, S., Lewis, M., Ryan, S., Robinson, B., King, T., Kelble, C., and Lacoste, J. Submersible Optical Sensors Exposed to Chemically Dispersed Crude Oil: Wave Tank Simulations for Improved Oil Spill Monitoring. Environmental Science and Technology, 48, 1803–1810
  • Zhao, L., Boufadel, M., Socolofsky, S., Adams, E., King, T., and Lee, K. Evolution of droplets in a subsea oil and gas blowout: Development and validation of a numerical model VDROP–J. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 83, 58–69.
  • Zhao, L., Torlapati, J., Boufadel, M.C., King, T., Robinson, B., and Lee, K. VDROP: A omprehensive model for droplet formation of oils and gases in liquids – Incorporation of the interfacial tension and droplet viscosity. Chemical Engineering Journal, 253, 93–106.
  • Bornstein, J., Adams, J., Hollebone, B., King, T., Hodson, P., Brown, S. Effects Driven Chemical Fractionation of Heavy Fuel Oil to Isolate Compounds Toxic to Trout Embryos. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 33, (4), 814–8.
  • Adams, J., Bornstein, J., Muuno, K., Hollebone, B., King, T., Brown, S., and Hodson, P. Identification of Compounds in Heavy Fuel Oil that are Chronically Toxic to Rainbow Trout Embryos by Effects Driven Chemical Fractionation. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 33, (4), 825–835.
  • Martin, J., Adams, J., Hollebone, B., King, T., Brown, R.S. and Hodson, P.V. Chronic toxicity of heavy fuel oils to fish embryos using multiple exposure scenarios. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 33, (3), 677–687.

2013

  • King, T., Clyburne, J., Lee, K., and Robinson, B. Interfacial film formation: Influence on oil spreading rates in lab basin tests and dispersant effectiveness testing in a wave tank. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 71, 83–91.
Government of Canada reports

Government of Canada reports

2019

  • Ryan, S.A., Wohlgeschaffen, G., Jahan, N. Niu, H., Ortmann, A., Brown, T., King, T., and Clyburne, J. State of Knowledge on Fate and Behaviour of Ship-Source Petroleum Product Spills: Volume 1, Introduction. Can. Manuscr. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 3176: vi + 25.
  • Ryan, S.A., Wohlgeschaffen, G., Jahan, N. Niu, H., Ortmann, A., Brown, T., King, T., and Clyburne, J. State of Knowledge on Fate and Behaviour of Ship-Source Petroleum Product Spills: Volume 2, Saint John and Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick. Can. Manuscr. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 3176: viii + 67.
  • Ryan, S.A., Wohlgeschaffen, G., Jahan, N. Niu, H., Ortmann, A., Brown, T., King, T., and Clyburne, J. State of Knowledge on Fate and Behaviour of Ship-Source Petroleum Product Spills: Volume 3, Port Hawkesbury-Canso Strait, Nova Scotia. Can. Manuscr. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 3176: viii + 41.
  • Ryan, S.A., Wohlgeschaffen, G., Jahan, N. Niu, H., Ortmann, A., Brown, T., King, T., and Clyburne, J. State of Knowledge on Fate and Behaviour of Ship-Source Petroleum Product Spills: Volume 4, St. Lawrence Seaway, Montreal to Anticosti, Québec. Can. Manuscr. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 3176: viii + 42.
  • Ryan, S.A., Wohlgeschaffen, G., Jahan, N. Niu, H., Ortmann, A., Brown, T., King, T., and Clyburne, J. State of Knowledge on Fate and Behaviour of Ship-Source Petroleum Product Spills: Volume 5, Strait of Georgia and the Juan de Fuca Strait, British Columbia: Volume 5, Strait of Georgia and the Juan de Fuca Strait, British Columbia. Can. Manuscr. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 3176: viii + 47.

2017

  • O’Laughlin, C., Law, B., Zions, V., King, T., Robinson, B. and Wu, Y. The dynamics of diluted bitumen derived oil-mineral aggregates, Part II. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 3209: viii + 49.

2016

  • King, T., Robinson, B., Ryan, S., Mason, J., Thamer, P., Wohlgeschaffen, G., and Lee, K. Oil sheen formation and fate in an open sea environment. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 3178: i-31.
  • O’Laughlin, C., Law, B., Zions, V., King, T., Robinson, B., and Wu, Y. The dynamics of diluted bitumen derived oil-mineral aggregates, part I. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 3157: i-44.

2013

  • Federal Government Technical Report: Properties, Composition and Marine Spill Behaviour, Fate and Transport of Two Diluted Bitumen Products from the Canadian Oil Sands; Cat. No. En84–96/2013E–PDF; Government of Canada: Ottawa, ON, Canada, pp. 1–85.
Book chapters

Book chapters

2019

List E1c. Special Publications

List E1c. Special Publications

2018

  • Conmy, R., King, T., Robinson, B., Boufadel, M., and Schaeffer, B. Characterizing Dispersant Effectiveness of Crude Oils at High Salinities: Implications for Subsea Spill Preparedness, IAA no. E15PG00039.

2015

2013

  • UV– Epifluorescence Microscopy Analysis of Sediments Recovered from the Kalamazoo River
Papers in peer reviewed conference proceedings

Papers in peer reviewed conference proceedings

2019

  • King, T., Robinson, B., Lee, K., Boufadel, M., and Clyburne, J. Seasonal climatic factors influence on monocyclic aromatics rate of release and decay in water from surface spills of oil sands products. Proceedings of the 42nd AMOP Technical Seminar, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada, pp. 773-790.
  • King, T., Robinson, B., Toole, P., and Clyburne, J. 2019. Access Western Blend (dilbit) weathered on cold fresh and marine salt waters. Proceedings of the 42nd AMOP Technical Seminar, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada, pp. 847-859.
  • King, T., Robinson, B., Ryan, S., Mason, J., Soper, G., Toole, P., and Clyburne, J. Physical and chemically enhanced dispersion of synthetic bitumen in fresh and brackish waters. Proceedings of the 42nd AMOP Technical Seminar, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada, pp. 859-869.
  • Brown, C., Lambert, P., Jones, N., Willie, M., King, T., and Dettman, H. Government of Canada oil spill research: an update on five years of studies. Proceedings of the 42nd AMOP Technical Seminar, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada, pp. 397-414.
  • Li, H., Bao, M., Sun, P., Zhao, L., Xie, Y., and King, T. Effects of suspended particulate matter, surface oil layer thickness and surfactants on the formation and transport of oil-sediment aggregates (OSA). Proceedings of the 42nd AMOP Technical Seminar, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada, pp. 1039-1053.

2018

  • Sun, P., Li, J., Wang, X., Sha, J., Zhou, Q., Cao, L., Li, F., Cao, J., Li, G., Ortmann, A., King, T., Lu, Y. and Lee, K. 2018. Biodegradation of a Bohai Crude Oil by Natural Attenuation and Biostimulation with Added Nutrients and Chemical Dispersant. Proceedings of the Forty-first AMOP Technical Seminar. Environment and Climate Change Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada, pp. 505-520.

2017

  • Zhao, L., Boufadel, M., King, T., Robinson, B., and Lee, K. Experimental and numerical investigation of the formation of Oil Particle Aggregates (OPA). Proceeding of The International Oil Spill Conference Proceedings, Vol. 2017, No. 1, pp. 1911 1930.
  • Zhao, L., Gao, F., Boufadel, M., King, T., Robinson, B., and Lee, K. Effects of tip streaming on the prediction of droplet size distribution in the presence of dispersants during subsea blowouts. International Oil Spill Conference Proceedings: May 2017, Vol. 2017, No. 1, pp. 1212-1229.
  • Conmy, R., Robinson, B., King, T., Boufadel, M., Ryan, S., McIntyre, C., Abercrombie, M., and Lee, K. Oil plume simulations: Tracking oil droplet size distribution and fluorescence within high pressure release jets. Proceeding of the International Oil Spill Conference Proceedings, Vol. 2017, No. 1, pp. 1230 1250.
  • Gao, F., Zhao, L., Shaffer, F., Golshan, R., Boufadel, M., King, T., Robinson, B., and Lee, K. Prediction of oil droplet movement and size distribution: Lagrangian method and VDROP-J model. Proceeding of The International Oil Spill Conference Proceedings, Vol. 2017, No. 1, pp. 1194 1211.
  • King, T., Mason, J., Thamer, P., Wohlgeschaffen, Lee, K., and Clyburne, JAC. Composition of bitumen blends relevant to ecological impacts and spill response. Proceeding of the Fortieth AMOP Technical Seminar, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Ottawa, ON, pp. 463-475, 2017.
  • Zhao, L., Boufadel, M., Gao, F., King, T., Robinson, B., and Lee, K. Effects of tip streaming on the prediction of droplet size distribution in the presence of dispersants during subsea blowouts. 2017 International Oil Spill Conference, At Long Beach, CA, United States, 2017-194, 4p.
  • Zhao, L., Boufadel, M., Gao, F., King, T., Robinson, B., and Lee, K. 2017 Interaction of gas bubbles and oil droplets in subsea oil and gas blowouts – a new development of VDROP-J model. Proceeding of The International Oil Spill Conference, At Long Beach, CA, United States, 2017-194, 19p.

2016

  • Wu, Y., Hannah, C., Law, B., King, T., and Robinson, B. An estimate of the sinking rate of spilled diluted bitumen in sediment laden coastal waters. Proceedings of the Thirty ninth AMOP Technical Seminar, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Ottawa, ON, pp. 331-347, 2016.
  • Niu, H., Li, S., King, T., and Lee, K. Stochastic modeling of oil spill in the Salish Sea. Expansion oil pipelines in western Canada will significantly increase tanker traffic in the Salish Sea. In: Proceeding of the twenty-sixth International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference Rhodes, Greece, Juen 26-July 1, 2016 ISBN 978-1-880653-88-3; ISSN 1098-6189.

2015

  • King, T.L., Robinson, B., Ryan, S., Lu, Y., Zhou, Q., Ju, L., Sun, P., and Lee, K. Fate of Chinese and Canadian Oil Treated with Dispersants in a Wave Tank. In: Proceeding of the 38th Arctic and Marine Oil Spill Program, Vancouver, BC, pp 798–811.

2014

  • Greer, C., Wyglinski, J., Michel, C., Fortin, N., Sanschagrin, S., Niemi, A., Whyte, L., King, T., Lee, K., and Yergeau, E. Natural attenuation potential for oil in ice in the Canadian Arctic marine environment. In: Proceeding of the 37th Arctic and Marine Oil Spill Program (AMOP) Conference (Canmore, Alberta Canada June 2nd to 4th, 2014).
  • Torlapati, J., Geng, X., King, T., Boufadel, M., and Lee, K. Shoreline bioremediation model(SBM): A graphical user interface to simulate the biodegradation of beached oil. In: Proceeding of the International Oil Spill Conference (Savannah, Georgia, American Petroleum Institute, pp. 1099–1103.
  • Zhao, L., Torlapati, J., King, T., Robinson, B., Boufadel, M.C., and Lee, K. 2014. A numerical model to simulate the droplet formation process resulting from the release of diluted bitumen products in marine environment. In: Proceeding of the International Oil Spill Conference (Savannah, Georgia, American Petroleum Institute, pp. 449–462).

Contact us

General inquiries

Rod Doane, Physical Scientist, COOGER

Telephone: 902-426-1438
Email: rod.doane@dfo-mpo.gc.ca

Research inquiries

Tom King, Research Scientist (Chemistry and Physical Science Lead)
Telephone: 902-401-2119
Email: Tom.King@dfo-mpo.gc.ca
Alice Ortmann, Research Scientist (Microbiology Lead)
Telephone: 902-426-1436
Email: Alice.Ortmann@dfo-mpo.gc.ca

Features

Centre for Offshore Oil, Gas and Energy Research

Centre for Offshore Oil, Gas and Energy Research

Dr. Ken Lee, former Director of COOGER, discussing oil dispersants used in the Gulf of Mexico.

COOGER Arctic

COOGER Arctic

Top scientists propose to test oil spill clean-up technologies in the Arctic.

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